Within copyright law, the ‘reproduction right’ gives the copyright owner the exclusive right to make copies of the work. Buying a piece of sheet music confers the right to sing or play from it, but not to copy or distribute its contents (except for ‘Fair use’ – see below), which remain the property of its creator.
The Copyright Act allows legal (non-pirated) music recordings to be space shifted for personal use. This means that it is legal to copy a CD that you own onto your own iPod on MP3 player or create a compilation CD from CDs that you own to listen to in the car, for example.
No. You must have the permission of the copyright owner. Check the copyright notice on the work, and/or check with the publisher of the collection in which the work appears. Once you have this information, write to the copyright onwer.
Making unauthorized copies of copyrighted music recordings is against the law and may subject you to civil and criminal liability. A civil lawsuit could hold you responsible for thousands of dollars in damages.
Any sheet music composed before 1923 is considered in the public domain, and can be copied, redistributed, performed or otherwise used by anyone without restriction. However, if significant edits have been made to the original by a later composer, using the updated version of the composition may be liable infringement.
Inherently, all historical musical works (pre-1925) are public domain. Classical sheet music, for example, is widely available for free use and reproduction. Some more current works are also available for free use through public works projects such as Internet Archive.
You may use up to 10%, but no more than 3 minutes, of a single movie, TV show or video. You may use up to 10%, but no more than 30 seconds, of music and lyrics from a single musical work. You must purchase performance rights to hold a live performance of a copyrighted work.
What is fair use? Fair use allows limited use of copyrighted material without permission from the copyright holder for purposes such as criticism, parody, news reporting, research and scholarship, and teaching.
Fair use is a set of exemptions to U.S. copyright law that allows copyrighted work to be used for educational purposes, news reporting, and other informational context without payment or permission. It also allows for commentary on a piece of work, and an additional exception for non-commercial work.
Fair Use Length Guidelines
|For Presentation or Project|
|For Presentation or Project|
Anyone who uses sheet music will know about IMSLP. The site was founded in 2006 and now offers the largest collection of free printable sheet music anywhere on the web. At the time of writing, the library has 170,000 individual works, 540,000 scores, 65,000 recordings, 20,000 composers, and 555 performers.
If the music is in the public domain, you can perform it publicly — wherever you like, without paying any fees at all. You can make copies of it, record it, remix it, use it in a film or on a web site … it’s up to you. You do have to establish that the sheet music really is public domain, though.
You may have heard of “fair use,” a copyright provision that permits you to use 10, 15 or 30 seconds of music without copyright obligation.
Top Six Most Popular Royalty-Free Songs
Mickey Mouse will enter the public domain in the year 2024, almost 95 years after his creation on 1 October 1928 – the length of time after which the copyright on an anonymous or pseudo-anonymous body of artistic work expires.
Since copyright law favors encouraging scholarship, research, education, and commentary, a judge is more likely to make a determination of fair use if the defendant’s use is noncommercial, educational, scientific, or historical.
Based on these exclusive rights alone, it appears that only the copyright owners or licensed individuals are allowed to make photocopies of the textbook. Photocopying textbooks can be considered reproducing copies of the work, so you may be infringing unless the copying is deemed fair use.
As a general matter, copyright infringement occurs when a copyrighted work is reproduced, distributed, performed, publicly displayed, or made into a derivative work without the permission of the copyright owner.
Fair Use allows limited use of copyrighted works without requiring permission from the copyright holder for a number of educational purposes – commentary, criticism, research, teaching, or scholarship.
If you are using copyrighted materials for a class-related assignment (e.g. powerpoint, video, essay) that stays within the confines of your classroom, and the assignment is not shared beyond your professor and fellow students, then yes, it is considered fair use.